Mineral resources in india » Coal, Petroleum, Uranium, Thorium

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Mineral resources in india » Coal, Petroleum, Uranium, Thorium

Mineral resources in india
Mineral resources in india

Coal Is The Major Source Of Energy In The Country And Contributes To 67 Per Cent Of The Country’s Commercial Energy Consumption. Apart From This, It Is An Essential Material Used In Steel And Carbo-Chemical Industries. The Power Obtained From Coal Is Twice That Of Mineral Oil, Five Times That Of Natural Gas And Eight Times That Of Hydroelectric Power. Due To Its Importance, It Is Given The Analogy Of Black Gold. India Ranks Second In The World In Terms Of Coal Reserves – According To The Indian Mineral Year Book (IMYB) 2009, The Reserve Of Coal In The Country Up To A Depth Of 1200 Meters Was 267211 Million Tonnes.

StateStorage (In Crore Tonnes)
Jharkhand7671.1
Odisha6522.6
Chhattisgarh4448.3
Fifth Note Of Musical Scale. Bengal2832.6
M. Q.2098.1

The Total Production Of Coal During The Year 2008-09 Was 492.9 Million Tonnes. 

About 77% Of The Total Production Of Coal In The Country Is Consumed In Electricity Generation.

StateIn Production
Chhattisgarh20.7
Odisha20.0
Jharkhand19.5
Madhya Pradesh14.4
Andhra Pradesh9.0

Types Of Coal In India 

On The Basis Of Carbon, Vapor And Water Content, Indian Coal Is Of The Following Types

1. Anthracite Coal: This Coal Is The Best. The Amount Of Carbon In It Is 80 To 95 Percent, Water From 2 To 5 Percent And Vapor From 25 To 40 Percent. It Does Not Give Smoke While Burning And Gives Maximum Heat. It Is Derived From The State Of Jammu And Kashmir.

2. Bituminous Coal: This Is The Second Grade Coal. The Carbon Content In It Is 55% To 65%, The Water Content Is 20% To 30% And 35% To 50%. It Gives Simple Smoke While Burning. The Coal Of Gondwana Period Is Of This Type. 

3. Lignite Coal: It Is A Substandard Brown Coal. In This, The Carbon Content Is 45 Percent To 55 Percent, The Water Content Is 30 Percent To 55 Percent And Vapor 35 Percent To 50 Percent. This Coal Is Found In Rajasthan, Meghalaya, Assam, Vellore, Thiruvanaloor (Tamil Nadu), Darjeeling (West Bengal).

Coal Field 

(A) Gondwana Coalfield: The Following Are The Major Coalfields Of Damodar Valley Under Gondwana Region.

Raniganj Area : P. The Raniganj Coalfield Of Bengal Is In The Upper Damodar Valley Which Is The Most Important And Largest Coalfield Of The Country. About 35% Of The Country’s Coal Is Obtained From This Region.

State% Quantity
Tamil Nadu80.36
Rajasthan11.65
Gujarat6.81
AreaState
JhariaJharkhand
Black CodeJammu And Kashmir
UmarsarGujarat
FosterRajasthan
OutPondicherry
NichahomeJammu And Kashmir
BarkalaKerala
FledglingTamil Nadu
Naagchik NameArunachal Pradesh
State% In Fraction
Tamil Nadu65.7
Gujarat31.1
Rajasthan3.08
Area% In Fraction
Thermal Plant74.6
Brick Kilns9.9
Steel Industry3.7
Cement Industry3.5
Fertilizer1.0

Jharia Coalfield Located In Dhanbad District Is The Largest Coal Producing Area Of ​​Jharkhand State. More Than 90% Of The Country’s Coking Coal Reserves Are Located Here. Coal Washing Schools Are Located At Sudamdih And Monidih. 

Giridih Region: Situated In The State Of Jharkhand, The Main Feature Of Coal Here Is That It Produces A Very Good Type Of Steam Coke Which Is Suitable For Metal Refining. 

Bokaro Region: It Is Located In Hazaribagh. Here Also The Best Coal For Making Coke Is Found. The Main One Here Is The Kargali Which Is About 66 Meters Thick. 

Karanpura Region: It Is Located In The Upper Damodar Valley, Three Kilometers West Of Bokaro Region. 

Son Valley Coalfield: Under This Zone, The Areas Of Sohagpur, Sindwarauli, Tatapani, Ramkola And Auranga, Hutar Of Orissa Come Under This Zone. 

Mahanadi Valley Coalfield: Talcher And Sambalpur Region Of Orissa, Sonhat And Vishrampur-Luckanpur Region Of Madhya Pradesh Are The Main Areas Under This Region. 

There Are Mines Of Korba Region In Chhattisgarh . It Is Used In Bhilai Steel Plant. To The East Of Korba Are The Mines Of Raigad. Chalwar Khana Is In The Brahmani River Valley.

High Quality Coal Is Found In Singaraini Region Of Andhra Pradesh. 

(B) Coalfields Of The Singaraini Age: 2% Of The Total Coal Of India Is Obtained From The Rocks Of Tertiary Age. Its Main Regions Are Rajasthan, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu And Kashmir And Tamil Nadu. Lignite Coal Deposits In Rajasthan Are Located At Palana, Barsingarsar, Bithnok (Bikaner), Kapurkadi, Jalippa (Barmer) And Kasnau-Igyar (Nagar).

Lignite Coal Is Found At Naveli In Arcot District In The South Of The State Of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu Is The Largest Producer And Producer Of Lignite. The Largest Deposits Of Lignite Are Located In Mannargudi (Tamil Nadu).

Mineral Oil Or Petroleum

Petroleum Is The ‘Rock Oil’ Of Aqueous Sedimentary Rocks Of The Tertiary Era. Which Is A Mixture Of Hydrocarbon Compounds. In This, Petrol, Diesel, Ether, Gasoline, Kerosene, Lubricating Oil And Wax Etc. Are Obtained. Crude Petroleum Production In India Was 33.5 Million Tonnes In 2008-09. In Which The Contribution Of Onshore Sector Was 11.21 Million Tonnes And The Contribution Of Offshore Sector Was 22.3 (66.6%) Million Tonnes.

The Extent Of Sedimentary Basins In India Is 720 Million Sq.Km. It Occupies An Area Of ​​3.140 Million Sq. Km. The Continental Coast Region Of The Reserves Of 28 Billion Tonnes Of Hydro-Carbon Have Been Estimated In These Sedimentary Basins, Of Which 7-70 Billion Tonnes Of Reserves Have Been Established Till 2008-2009. Hydrocarbons Consist Of 70% Oil And 30% Natural Gas. The Realizable Reserves Are Estimated To Be 2.60 Billion Tonnes.

Mineral Oil Field

There Are Four Major Oil Producing Regions In India. As

  1. Brahmaputra Valley 
  2. Gujarat Coast 
  3. Western Offshore Zone 
  4. Eastern Offshore Zone 

Brahmaputra Valley: This Is The Oldest Oil Belt Of The Country, Which Is 1300 Km From Dihing Valley To Surma Valley. The Area Is Wide. The Major Oil Producing Centers Here Are Digboi (Dibrugarh), Naharkatiya, Moranhudwarijan, Rudrasagar-Lakwa And Surmaghati. 

Gujarat Coast

  • This Field Produces About 18 Percent Of The Country’s Oil. There Are Two Belts Of Oil Production Here. For Example, Along The Eastern Coast Of The Gulf Of Khambhat, Where Ankleshwar And Khambhat Are The Main Oil Fields. 
  • From Kheda To Mehsana, Where Kalor, Sanand, Navgaon, Mehsana And Bacharji Are The Major Oil Fields. Bharuch, Mehsana, Ahmedabad, Kheda, Vadodara And Surat Are The Major Oil Producing Districts. 
  • Ankleshwar Oil Field Is 30 Sq Km In Bharuch District. The Area Is Wide. 
  • The Impure Oil Is Refined At Koyli And Trombay. Khambhat : Lunej Region, Also Known As ‘Gandhara Region’, 60 Km From Vadodara. Located In The West. 
  • The Ahmedabad-Kalor Region Is Located In The North Of The Khambhat Basin Around Ahmedabad.
Region/StateVolume Million Cubic Meters In
Offshore24086 (73.3%)
Gujarat2605 (7.93%)
Asom2603 (7.92%)
Andhra Pradesh1524 (4.63%)
Tamil Nadu1542 6
Tripura553
All India32849 (100%)
Public Area25265 (76.9%)
The Private Sector7584 (23.0%)
Region/StateQuantity (In Thousand Tonnes)
Offshore22232 (66.35%)
Gujarat5944 (17.74%)
Asom4673 (13.94%)
Tamil Nadu289 5
Andhra Pradesh265
All India33506
Public Area28832 (86.0%)
The Private Sector4674 (13.94%)
Region/StateCrude Oil (In Million Tonnes)Natural Gas (Billion
Cubic Meters)
India773.301115.27
(A) Offshore452.46840.09
(B) Coastal320.8427517
All India773.301115.27

3. Western Offshore Region

67 Percent Of The Country’s Crude Oil Production Is Produced From This Field. Under This, Three Areas Are Included. As

  • The Bombay-High Oil Field Is The Largest Oil Producing Region In The Country, Contributing More Than 60% To The National Production. It Is 176 Km From Mumbai. About 2500 Sq Km In The Southwest. The Area Is Wide. Its Production Is Continuously Decreasing Due To Overexploitation. 
  • The Basin Oil Field Is Located To The Southwest Of Bombay High. The Oil Reserves Of This Region Are Larger Than Those Of Bombay High. Aliabet Oil Field Is 45 Km From Bhavnagar. It Is Situated In The Distant Gulf Of Khambhat. 

4. Eastern Offshore Region

  • Petroleum And Natural Gas Have Been Found In The Basins And Deltas Of The Krishna, Godavari And Kaveri Rivers. Oil Has Been Found In The Rava Field Located In The Krishna-Godavari Offshore Basin. Other Oilfields Are Located At Amalapuru (Andhra Pradesh), Narimanam And Koirakalapalli (Cauvery Basin). The Impure Oil Is Refined At Panaigudi Near Chennai.
  • Impure Oil Has Also Been Found In Kaveri Delta, Jwalamukhi (Himachal Pradesh) And Barmer (Rajasthan). 
  • There Is A Possibility Of Getting Oil In Gulf Of Mannar (Tirunelveli Coast), Point Kalimir And Jaffna Peninsula And Avantangi, Karaikudi Coast, Bay Of Bengal, Wide Belt From Kashmir To Western Uttar Pradesh, Offshore Area West Of Andaman Islands Etc. The Government Had Invited Tenders From Foreign Companies For The Exploration Of Oil In 48 New Areas Under The New Exploration License Policy. 

Uranium

It Is Found In Dharwad And Archean Range Of Rocks, Pegmatite, Monazite Sand And Cheralite. The Major Ore Of Uranium Is Pinchblende, Somemarskite Ave Therianite. Jadugoda (Singbhum) Area Of ​​Jharkhand Is Famous For Uranium Mining. Sources Of Heavy Uranium Have Been Unearthed In Singhbhum District Itself At Bhatin, Narva, Pahar And Keruadungri. In Rajasthan, Uranium Is Obtained From Bhilwara, Bundi And Udaipur Districts.

Thorium

India Is The World’s Largest Thorium Producer. Thorius Is Obtained From Monazite Sand, Which Has Formed From The Eroded Powders Of Rocks Of The Pre-Cambrian Period. Which Is Mainly Found In The Coastal Parts Of Kerala. Apart From This, It Is Also Found In The Form Of Ravens In The Districts Of Nilgiri (Tamil Nadu), Hazaribagh (Jharkhand) And Udaipur (Rajasthan) And In The Granite Areas Of The Western Coast.

Mica – Mica

The Main Ore Of Mica Is Pigmatite. Well This Muscovite Is A Group Of Minerals Such As Biotite, Phlogopite And Lepidolite, Which Are Found As Fragments In Igneous And Metamorphic Rocks. According To The Mineral Year Book 2009, India Is The 15th Largest Producer Of Mica In The World (0.3%) By Producing 1206 Thousand Tonnes Of Mica. It Is Known That The Main Use Of Mica Is As An Insulator Material In Electrical Goods And In High Power Motors In Aircrafts, Radio Industry And Radar.

State% Part
Rajasthan51
Andhra Pradesh28
Maharashtra17
A State In Eastern India3
State% In Fraction
Andhra Pradesh100.0
RajasthanNot Produced
A State In Eastern IndiaNot Produced
JharkhandNot Produced

India Ranks 15th (0.3%) In The World In The Production Of Natural Mica, While It Ranks First In The Production And Storage Of Mica Sheets. Its Importing Countries Are Japan, USA. Britain Is The Main One. Major Mica Producing Regions Are Listed Below. AsShow 102550100 EntriesSearch:

StateArea
Andhra PradeshNellore And Khambhat
RajasthanJaipur And Udaipur
JharkhandHazaribagh, Singh Bhoomi
A State In Eastern IndiaGaya, Agalpur, Munger

 Gypsum

It Is Found In Sedimentary Rocks. It’s Also Called Selenite. It Is Said. It Is An Aqueous Sulfide Of Calcium. It Is Used To Make Soil Improvers, Plaster-Of-Paris, Paint-Thickeners, Sulfuric Acid And Chemical Fertilizers By Mixing Cement And Lime.Show 102550100 EntriesSearch:

State% In Fraction
Rajasthan43.28
Jammu And Kashmir42.46
Tamil Nadu9.37
State% In Fraction
Rajasthan99
Jammu And Kashmir0.80

The Major Gypsum Producing Areas Are As Follows. As

StateArea
RajasthanNagaur, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Ganganagar, Barmer, And Pali Districts
Jammu And KashmirUri, Baramulla, Doda District
Tamil NaduCoimbatore, Tiruchirappalli And
Chinglepet Districts

Bauxite

Bauxite Is Associated With Laterite Rocks Formed In The Tertiary Era, Which Is An Oxide Of Aluminum. It Is A Byproduct Of Residual Weathering That Leads To Leaching Of Silica. It Is Known That The Amount Of Alumina In Bauxite Is 55 To 65 Percent.

Aluminum Is Being Counted Among The Most Useful Metals Due To Being A Light, Strong, Malleable, Ductile, Conductor Of Heat And Electricity And Resistant To Atmospheric Corrosion. It Produces 1 Ton Of Alumina From Electrical, Metallurgical, Aeronautics, Automobiles, Chemicals, Refractory Bauxite And 1 Ton Of Aluminum From 2 Tons Of Alumina. According To IMEB-09, The Total Reserves Of Bauxite In India Are 3280 Million Tonnes, Which Is 7 Percent Of The World’s Total Bauxite Reserves, That Is, India Ranks Fourth In Terms Of Accumulated Reserves.

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