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What is rocks and minerals science | type | difference

What is rocks and minerals science | type | difference 
What is rocks and minerals science | type | difference 

What is rocks and minerals science – The Scientific Study Of Rocks Is Called Petrology Which Is A Branch Of Geology. 

The Substances From Which Rocks Are Formed Are Called Minerals. The Most Common Minerals Found In Rocks Are Quartz And Feldspar.

Different Minerals Have Different Hardness. Ten Minerals Have Been Selected On The Basis Of Degree Of Hardness

MineralsHardness
Talc1
Calcite3
Apatite5
Quarts7
Corundum9
Gypsum2
Fluorite4
Feldspar6
Topaz8
Diamond10

On The Basis Of The Process Of Formation, Rocks Can Be Divided Into Three Classes

(I) Igneous Rocks 

(Ii) Sedimentary Rocks 

(Iii) Metamorphic Rocks

Types of rocks

Igneous Rock

  • Igneous Rock Is Formed By The Cooling Of Magma. 
  • This Rock Was First Formed, Hence It Is Also Called Primary Rock. 
  • Fossils And Layers Are Not Found In Igneous Rock And Are Generally Fibrous. 
  • Igneous Rocks Are The Ancestor Of All Rocks And 85% Of The Crust Is Made Up Of Them. Examples Are Basalt, Dolerite, Granite And Feldspar. 
  • These Rocks Are Relatively Hard And Water Does Not Seep Into Them. Important Minerals Are Found In These Such As Nickel, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Chromite, Manganese, Gold, Diamond And Platinum. 
  • Batholiths Are Domed Deposits Of Igneous Rocks That Are Deposited Beneath The Earth’s Surface. It Is Mainly Made Of Granite. Example: America’s Idaho Batholith

Sedimentary Rocks

  • These Rocks Are Formed By The Erosion And Deposition Of Igneous And Metamorphic Rocks On The Earth’s Surface. These Are Also Called Layered Rocks. 
  • Its Constituent Elements Are Silica, Calcite And Iron Compounds Etc.
  • About 75% Of The Earth’s Surface Is Covered By Sedimentary Rocks. 
  • But Its Contribution To The Formation Of The Crust Is Only 5%. 
  • Sedimentary Rocks Are Clastic And Non-Clastic. 
  • Clastic Depressions Are Depressions Broken Off From The Parent Rock While Non-Clastic Depressions Are Newly Deposited Mineral Deposits. 

Sedimentary Rocks Can Be Divided Into Three Main Categories: 

  • (A) Sandstone, Conglomerate, Clay Soil, Loess, Gravel, Alluvium Etc. Formed By Mechanical Action.
  • (B) Limestone, Coal, Coral Reef, Petroleum Etc. Formed By Organic Elements. 
  • (C) Rock Rock, Salt Rock, Borax, Limestone, Halite, Potash, Gypsum And Nitrate Etc. Formed From Chemical Elements. 

Note: Most Of The World’s Petroleum Is Found In Sedimentary Rocks.

Transformed Rocks

  • It Is Formed By The Transformation Of Igneous And Flaky Rocks. 
  • This Transformation Takes Place Through High Temperature, Pressure, Stress Etc. 
  • Fossils Are Destroyed In Them Due To High Temperature, So There Is Often A Lack Of Fossils In Metamorphic Rocks. These Are The Hardest Rocks.
Primordial RockMetamorphic Rock
LimestoneMarble
SandstoneQuartzite
Shell/ChikaSlate
GraniteShell
GabroSerpentine
AmphibolitesGranulites
BasalticCyst
CoalGraphite
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