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The Universe » Planets, Stars, Galaxies, Black Holes

The Universe » There Are Innumerable Stars, Planets, Meteorites, Tail Stars, Solid And Gaseous Particles Which Are Called ‘Celestial Bodies’. All These Bodies Move In A Certain Orbit In The Universe.

The Universe » Planets, Stars, Galaxies, Black Holes
The Universe » Planets, Stars, Galaxies, Black Holes

A Light Year Refers To The Distance Traveled By Light In A Year.

This Distance Is Equal To 9.46 X 1015 M Or 9500 Billion Km. Light Year Is The Unit Of Distance. 1 Parsec = 3.26 Light Years

The Universe » Nebula

A Huge Cloud Made Of Hydrogen Gas Is Called A Nebula. This Is How The Galaxy Was Formed. Nebula Represents The Infancy Of A Galaxy While The Milky Way Is Its Developing Stage.

The Universe » Akash Ganga ( Galaxy )

There Are Over 100 Billion Galaxies In The Universe. Our Solar Family Is A Part Of The Milky Way, Which Is Named ‘Milky Way’. It Contains 300 Billion Stars, One Of Which Is The Sun. Mercanian-348, The Largest Known Galaxy, Is 13 Times Larger Than The Milky Way. The Andromeda Galaxy Is The Closest Galaxy Located At A Distance Of 2.2 Million Light Years From Our Galaxy.

The Universe » Constellation

Groups Of Stars, Arranged In Different Shapes, Are Called Constellations, Such As Hercules, Hydra, Cygnus, Etc. There Are Total 89 Constellations In The Sky. The Largest Of These Is The Constellation Centaurus, Which Has 94 Stars. Hydra Has 68 Stars.

The Universe » Star

Some Celestial Bodies Have Their Own Light And Heat. These Are Called Stars. These Are Actually Very Large Hot Bodies Of Hydrogen And Helium Gases. They Appear To Twinkle And Provide Heat And Energy. Sun Is Also A Star. Cyrus Is The Brightest Star. It Is Also Called ‘Dog Star’. 

The Universe » Proxima Centauri

It Is The Closest Star To Earth. Stars Are Born, Grow And Eventually Die. The Destruction Of A Star Occurs By A Supernova Explosion And The Remaining Neutron Stars Are Called ‘Black Holes’ Or Black Holes.

The Universe » Planet

There Are Some Celestial Bodies That Have Neither Their Own Light Nor Heat. They Only Receive Light From Stars Like The Sun And Reflect It. These Are Called Planets. Our Earth Is Also A Planet That Receives Light And Heat From The Sun.

The Universe » Satellite

The Celestial Bodies Which Revolve Around A Planet Are Called Satellites. The Sun For The Planets And The Planets Act As The Center Of Gravity For The Satellites.

The Moon Is An Example Of A Satellite That Revolves Around The Earth And Also Revolves Around The Sun.

The Universe » Meteorites

It Is A Very Small Cosmic Particle Moving Rapidly In Space. When These Objects Made Of Dust And Gas Enter The Atmosphere, They Start Shining Due To Friction. These Are Called ‘Shooting Star’. Often They Burn To Ashes Before Reaching The Earth, Which Is Called Meteorite. But Some Bodies Do Not Completely Burn Due To The Friction Of The Atmosphere And Fall On The Earth In The Form Of Rocks, Which Are Called Meteorites.

The Universe » Comet

They Revolve Around The Sun In A Long But Irregular Or Asymmetrical Orbit. After Many Years, When They Reach Near The Sun, They Heat Up And Emit Gases Which Appear Like A Long-Bright Tail. In Normal Condition It Is Tailless. Haley Is A Cusp That Appears After A Gap Of 76 Years. It Was Last Seen In 1986.

The Universe » Asteroids

Bodies Ranging In Size From Small To Hundreds Of Km In Size, Which Revolve Around The Sun Between The Planets Mars And Jupiter, Are Called Asteroids Or Periodic Planets. Ceres Is The Largest Asteroid.

Our Solar System There Are Sun And Eight Planets In Our Solar System. Apart From This, Some Other Bodies Are Also Its Members. For Example, Satellites, Asteroids, Meteors And Asteroids. So Far 163 Satellites Have Been Discovered In Our Solar System. All These Are Located In The Milky Way Galaxy. The Entire Solar System Revolves Around The Center Of The Milky Way In 250 Million Years. This Time Interval Is Called A Cosmic Year.

The Universe » Sun

  • The Sun Is Located At The Center Of The Solar System. All The Planets Revolve Around It. The Diameter Of The Sun Is 109 Times That Of The Earth, 1.3 Million Times Its Volume And 303 Million Times Its Weight And Its Weight Is 2 X 1027 Tons. 
  • The Density Of The Sun Is One Fourth That Of The Earth. 
  • Its Composition Consists Of 71% Hydrogen And 26.5% Helium. 
  • The Sun Is About 150 Million Km Away From The Earth. 
  • The Speed Of Light Is 3 Lakh Km Per Second. At This Speed, The Sun’s Rays Take About 8 Minutes 16.6 Seconds To Reach The Earth. 
  • The Sun Receives Energy Through The Process Of Nuclear Fusion. 
  • In This, Small Nuclei Of Hydrogen Combine To Form The Helium Molecule. 
  • The Core Of The Sun Has A Temperature Of 15 Million Degrees Centigrade.

Various Surfaces And Temperatures Of The Sun Heat And Energy Are Continuously Released From The Sun’s Surfaces. This Energy Is The Basis Of Life On The Surface Of The Earth. 6000°C On The Surface Of The Sun. The Temperature Is Found While In Its Center Is 15 Million _°C. Temperature Is Found.

The Universe » Photohere

The Lower Surface Of The Sun Is Called The Light Circle. This Part Of The Sun Is Visible To Us Through Our Eyes. The Dark Spots On It Are Called Sunspots . 

The Universe » Chromospace

It Is In The Form Of A Narrow Layer Above The Photoosphere Where The Temperature Increases With The Increase In Altitude. Ordinarily, It Cannot Be Seen With The Naked Eye Because They Are Overpowered By The Light In The Photosystem . Sometimes Light Of Intense Intensity Is Produced In This Circle, Which Is Called ‘Solar Flame’. Most Of The Elements Found On Earth On This Layer Are Present In The Gaseous State. 

The Universe » Corona

This Is The Outer Part Of The Sun That Is Visible During A Solar Eclipse. It Emits X-Rays And Its Temperature Is 1.5 Million Degrees Celsius. It Happens.

The Universe » Planets

  • According To The Revised Definition Of The International Astronomical Union (IAU) In The Year 2006, A Planet Is A Celestial Body In The Solar System That: 
  • Be In The Orbit Of The Sun.
  • Has Sufficient Mass To Attain Static Equilibrium (Nearly Spherical) Shape. 
  • The ‘Neighborhood’ Around Its Orbit Has Been Evacuated, That Is, It Has Become So Gravitationally Dominant That No Body Of Its Equivalent Size Is Present In The Neighbourhood, Except Its Satellite.

Planets Of The Sun

The Sun Has Eight Planets That Revolve Around The Sun In Their Fixed Orbits. These Are The Following:

  • 1. Mercury 
  • 2. Venus 
  • 3. Earth 
  • 4. Mars 
  • 5. Jupiter 
  • 6. Saturn 
  • 7. Uranus ( Arun ) 
  • 8. Neptune ( Varuna )

The Universe » Dwarf Planet

A Dwarf Planet Is A Celestial Body Which: (A) Is In An Orbit Around The Sun (B) Has A Mass Sufficient For Its Own Gravity And Therefore Attains A Static Equilibrium (Nearly Spherical Shape) (C) Has Lost Its Neighbourhood And (D) Is Not A Satellite. There Are Currently Five Dwarf Planets According To This Definition: 

  • 1. Pluto 
  • 2. Ceres
  • 3. Iris.
  • 4. Makemke 
  • 5. Homiya 

Out Of The Eight Planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth And Mars Are Called Inner Planets And They Are Located Between The Sun And The Asteroid Belt. These Four Planets Are Also Called ‘Terrestrial Planets’ Because They Are Made Of Rocks And Metals Like Earth And Have High Density. 

The Other Four Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus And Varuna Are Called Outer Planets. These Planets Are Also Called ‘Jovian Planets’. Jovian Means Similar To Jupiter. They Are Much Larger Than The Terrestrial Planet And Have A Dense Atmosphere Which Is Composed Mostly Of Helium And Hydrogen. 

Until Recently, Pluto Was Considered A Planet, But In August 2006, The International Astronomical Union (IAU) Stripped Pluto Of Planet Status Due To The Encroachment Of The Orbit Of Uranus And The Tilt Of Pluto’s Orbit Compared To Other Planets.

Planetary Positions. 

The Positions Of The Planets Based On Their Distance From The Sun (In Ascending Order):

Mercury-Venus-Earth-Mars-Jupiter-Saturn-Uranus-Neptune

Decreasing Position Of Planets According To Size:

Jupiter-Saturn-Uranus-Neptune-Earth-Venus-Mars-Mercury 

The Shortest Period It Takes For Venus (225 Days) To Revolve Around The Sun. 

Pluto (248 Years) Takes The Longest Period To Orbit The Sun, Followed By Neptune (164 Years). 

Time Taken For The Planets To Rotate On Their Axis

  • Jupiter – 9 Hours 50 Minutes
  • Sat-10 Hr 40 Min
  • Fri-243 Days
  • Wed-59 Days 
  • Earth – 24 Hours
PlanetNumber Of Satellites
Saturn53
Jupiter50
Arun ( Uranus )27
Varuna ( Neptune )13
Mars2
Earth1
Note: Mercury And Venus Have No Satellites.
PlanetTilt On Its Axis
Earth23.50
Pluto17
Wed7
Vesper3.5
Saturn2.5
Mars2
Neptune2
Jupiter1
Uranus0
Brief Description Of Different Planets

Mercury

  • The Closest Planet To The Sun Is At A Distance Of 5.7 Million Km From The Sun. The Smallest Planet In The Solar System, Whose Diameter Is Only 4849.6 Km. 
  • There Is No Atmosphere, So There Is No Possibility Of Life Here. It Has No Satellite. 
  • The Period Of Revolution Around The Sun Is 88 Days.

Venus

  • The Brightest Planet In The Solar System Because It Reflects More Of The Rays Coming From The Sun Than The Other Planets. 
  • Also The Planet With The Highest Temperature From 460°C To 700°C. 
  • Clouds Of Sulfuric Acid Are Found Here. 
  • It Is The Closest Planet To Earth, Which Is Located At A Distance Of 41.1 Million Km From Earth. 
  • The Volume, Weight And Density Of This Planet Are Similar To That Of Earth. 
  • Hence It Is Called ‘Sister Of The Earth’ Or ‘Twin Planets’. 
  • It Is Also Called ‘Dawn Star’ And ‘Evening Star’.
  • Carbon Dioxide Is Found In Abundance (90-95%) In The Atmosphere Of Venus. 
  • Hydrogen Is Also Found In Small Amounts. 
  • The Cloud System Of The Planet Venus Is Orange In Color, Hence It Is Also Called ‘Orange Planet’. 
  • It Orbits The Sun In The Opposite Direction (East To West) Of The Other Planets. 
  • No Satellite.

Earth

It Is The Third Largest Planet In Terms Of Distance From The Sun And The Fifth Largest. 

It Is Located 148.8 Million Km Away From The Sun.

Earth Makes One Revolution On Its Axis In 24 Hours. 

Earth Completes One Revolution Around The Sun In 365 Days, 5 Hours And 42 Minutes. 

It Is Also Called ‘Blue Planet’. 

It Is The Only Planet Where Life Has Been Possible Due To The Favorable Atmosphere.

Its Diameter Is 12,733.2 Km. 

It Has Only One Satellite, The Moon.

Some Important Facts About Earth

Diameter 

Beas 12,756 Km At The Equator 

Beas At Poles 12,714 Km 

Circumference 

Perimeter At The Equator 40,077 Km 

Circumference At The Poles 40,009 Km 

Density

5.52 G/S (5.2 Times The Density Of Water) 

Age 4.6 Billion Years 

Highest Terrestrial Point 8848 M (Mount Everest) 

Lowest Terrestrial Point (Dead Sea ) -397 M

Highest Ocean Depth 11022 M (Mariana Trench) 

Temperature

Highest: 58 ° C Al-Azizia, Libya. 

Lowest: –89.6°C At Antarctica,

Average : -49°C

Escape Velocity 11200 M/S

Moon

  • Diameter : 3475 Km
  • Gravitational Force: 1/6 Of The Earth
  • Average Distance From The Sun: 3.85 Lakh Km
  • It Completes The Orbit Of The Earth In 27 Days And 7.4 Hours. 
  • A Ray Of Light Reaches The Earth’s Surface In 1.3 Seconds After Reflection From The Moon’s Surface. 
  • There Is No Atmosphere. 
  • It Has Low Albedo And Reflects Only 7% Of The Light And Absorbs The Rest. 
  • The Speed Of Rotation And Revolution Of The Moon Is Almost Equal. 
  • So We Always See An Equal Part Of It. 
  • It Revolves Around The Sun In An Elliptical Orbit, So In One Complete Revolution It Comes Twice Closer To The Sun And Twice Away From It. 
  • The Closest Position Of The Moon To The Earth Is Called Perigee And The Farthest Position Is Called Apogee. When The Earth, The Sun And The Moon Are Aligned, It Is Called A Syzgie.

Solar Eclipse And Lunar Eclipse 

  • When The Moon Comes Between The Sun And The Earth, It Results In A New Moon.
  • There Is A Solar Eclipse On The New Moon. 
  • When The Position Of The Earth Is Between The Sun And The Moon, It Is Called Full Moon, In Which Case The Earth Does Not Get Sunlight. 
  • In This Situation A Lunar Eclipse Occurs. 
  • Changes In The Relative Positions Of The Sun, Earth And The Moon Change The Surface Area Of ​​The Moon Reflecting The Sun’s Light, 
  • Which Is Called The ‘Art Of The Moon’.

Mars

  • It Is A Smaller Planet Than Venus And Earth, Whose Diameter Is 4014 Km. 
  • It Rotates On Its Axis Once In 24.6 Hours (Approximately Equal To Earth). 
  • It Appears Red Due To The Presence Of Iron Oxide. 
  • That’s Why It Is Called The ‘Red Planet’. 
  • Mount ‘Nix Olympia’ Is Located On Mars, Which Is Three Times Higher Than Mount Everest. 
  • Phobos And Deimos Are Its Two Satellites. 
  • A Lot Of Space Missions Have Been Sent To This Planet. Like- Vikings, Pathfinder, Mars Odyssey, Mangalyaan Etc. 
  • The Only Planet After Earth Where Signs Of Water Have Been Found And The Possibility Of Life Is Widespread. 
  • It Has A Thin Atmosphere Consisting Of Nitrogen And Argon.

Jupiter

  • The Largest Planet In The Solar System, Its Diameter And Area Are 11 Times And 120 Times That Of Earth, Respectively. 
  • It Has Been Given The Analogy Of ‘Lord Of The Heavens’ And Master Of Gods. 
  • Its Gravity Is Much Higher Than That Of Earth And It Is The Fastest Rotating Planet. 
  • Distance From The Sun: 772 Million Km Rotation On Its Axis: In 10 Hours. The Orbit Of The Sun: 11 Years And 10 Months. Extremely Cold Atmosphere (-14°C) Due To Being Far Away From The Sun. Its Surface Is Not Solid And The Atmosphere Is Composed Of Hydrogen, Helium, Ammonia And Methane And Is Very Dense. 
  • Jupiter Has 63 Satellites. 
  • Europa, Ganymede, Callisto Are The Major Satellites Of Jupiter. 
  • Ganymede Is The Largest Satellite In The Solar System, Which Is Larger Than The Planet Mercury.
  • A Major Feature Of This Planet Is The Great Red Spot.

Saturn

  • It Is The Second Largest Planet In The Solar System. It Is 1417 Million Km Away From The Sun. 
  • It Revolves Around The Sun In 29 Years And 6 Months. 
  • One Of The Main Features Of Saturn Is That It Has A Circular Ring Around It Which Does Not Touch The Surface Of Saturn. 
  • Saturn Is Made Up Of Lighter Gases Of Which 63% Is Hydrogen. 
  • Saturn Has The Largest Number Of Known Satellites At 60. 
  • It Was Announced By The International Astronomical Union On 3 March 2009. Titan Is Its Largest Satellite.

Arun ( Uranus )

  • This Planet Was Discovered By William Herschel In 1781 AD. 
  • It Is 2867 Million Km Away From The Sun. 
  • It Makes One Revolution On Its Axis In 11 Hours And Revolves Around The Sun In 84 Years. 
  • It Rotates On Its Axis From East To West. Its Atmosphere Is Very Dense In Which Methane Gas Is Found.
  • Its Satellites Orbit In The Opposite Direction. 
  • It Has 27 Satellites. 
  • Its Axis Is Tilted So That It Appears To Be Lying Down. 
  • Hence It Is Called A Recumbent Planet.

Varuna ( Neptune )

  • It Is Located 447 Crore Km Away From The Sun.
  • It Makes One Revolution On Its Axis In 15 Hours 40 Minutes. And Revolves Around The Sun In 165 Years. 
  • Due To The Presence Of Methane, It Appears Green And Is Called “Green Planet”. 
  • It Is A Very Cold Planet With A Maximum Temperature Of -200°C. 
  • It Has 13 Satellites. 
  • It Was Discovered By German Astronomer ‘Jahn Galle’ In 1846.

Dwarf Planet – Pluto

  • It Was Discovered In 1930. 
  • It Is Located At A Distance Of 559 Crore Km From The Sun. 
  • Its Diameter Is 2,222 Km. 
  • Pluto Was Also Considered A Planet Until August 2006. 
  • But In A Meeting Of The International Astronomical Union (IAU), It Was Decided That Like Other Recently Discovered Celestial Bodies, Pluto Will Also Be Called A Dwarf Planet.

1. What is the Universe?

The Universe is the vast and all-encompassing space that includes all of existence, including galaxies, stars, planets, moons, asteroids, comets, dark matter, and dark energy.

2. How big is the Universe?

The exact size of the Universe is unknown, but it is estimated to be about 93 billion light-years in diameter. This estimation is based on observable phenomena and the rate of expansion.

3. What are galaxies?

Galaxies are immense systems of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter bound together by gravity. They come in various shapes and sizes, such as spirals, ellipticals, and irregulars.

4. What is the Big Bang theory?

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the origin and evolution of the Universe. It suggests that the Universe began as a singularity and has been expanding since its inception about 13.8 billion years ago.

5. Are there other planets like Earth in the Universe?

It’s possible, but as of now, we have not definitively found planets exactly like Earth. Scientists continue to discover exoplanets in the habitable zone, where conditions might support liquid water and potentially life.

6. What is dark matter?

Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter that is thought to account for a significant portion of the matter in the Universe. It doesn’t emit, absorb, or reflect light, making it undetectable by electromagnetic radiation.

7. What is dark energy?

Dark energy is an unknown form of energy that is believed to be responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Its properties and nature are not yet fully understood.

8. How old is the Universe?

The current estimate for the age of the Universe is approximately 13.8 billion years, based on measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation and other astronomical observations.

9. What are black holes?

Black holes are regions in space where gravity is so strong that not even light can escape. They form from the remnants of massive collapsed stars or through the merging of other black holes.

10. Is the Universe still expanding?

Yes, the Universe is still expanding, and the rate of expansion is accelerating, as indicated by observations of distant galaxies moving away from us.

11. Universe Meaning In Hindi?

“Universe” का हिंदी में अर्थ है – ब्रह्मांड, अंतरिक्ष, सृष्टि, विश्व, संसार, जगत, समस्त विचाराधीन वस्तु, कायनात, संसृति, मानवजाति |
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